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日志

 
 

【引用】英语写作技巧。。。今天读到的,记不住,先copy来。。。保佑四六级有用的说。。。  

2011-04-03 00:07:01|  分类: 舶来 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一。35个经典句型

一、~~~ the + ~ est + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc)

~~~ the most + 形容词 + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc)

例句:Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen.

海伦是我所看过最美丽的女孩。

Mr. Chang is the kindest teacher that I have ever had.

张老师是我曾经遇到最仁慈的教师。

 

二、Nothing is + ~~~ er than to + V

Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V

例句:Nothing is more important than to receive education.

没有比接受教育更重要的事。

 

三、~~~ cannot emphasize the importance of ~~~ too much. (再怎么强调...的重要性也不为过。)

例句:We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.

我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。

 

四、There is no denying that + S + V ...(不可否认的...)

例句:There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse.

不可否认的,我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。

 

五、It is universally acknowledged that + 句子~~ (全世界都知道...)

例句:It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us.

全世界都知道树木对我们是不可或缺的。

 

六、There is no doubt that + 句子~~ (毫无疑问的...)

例句:There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be desired.

毫无疑问的我们的教育制度令人不满意。

 

七、An advantage of ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的优点是...)

例句:An advantage of using the solar energy is that it won‘t create (produce) any pollution.

使用太阳能的优点是它不会制造任何污染。

 

八、The reason why + 句子 ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的原因是...)

例句:The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can provide us with fresh air.

The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can supply fresh air for us.

我们必须种树的原因是它们能供应我们新鲜的空气。  

 

九、So + 形容词 + be + 主词 + that + 句子 (如此...以致于...)

例句:So precious is time that we can‘t afford to waste it.

时间是如此珍贵,我们经不起浪费它。

 

十、Adj + as + Subject(主词)+ be, S + V~~~ (虽然...)

例句:Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory. {by no means = in no way = on no account 一点也不}

虽然我们的国家富有,我们的生活品质绝对令人不满意。

 

十一、The + ~er + S + V, ~~~ the + ~er + S + V ~~~

The + more + Adj + S + V, ~~~ the + more + Adj + S + V

~~~(愈...愈...)

例句:The harder you work, the more progress you make.

你愈努力,你愈进步。

The more books we read, the more learned we become.

我们书读愈多,我们愈有学问。

 

十二、By +Ving, ~~ can ~~ (借着...,..能够..)

例句:By taking exercise, we can always stay healthy.

借着做运动,我们能够始终保持健康。

 

十三、~~~ enable + Object(受词)+ to + V (..使..能够..)

例句:Listening to music enable us to feel relaxed.

听音乐使我们能够感觉轻松。

 

十四、On no account can we + V ~~~ (我们绝对不能...)

例句:On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge.

我们绝对不能忽略知识的价值。

 

十五、It is time + S + 过去式 (该是...的时候了)

例句:It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems.

该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。

 

十六、Those who ~~~ (...的人...)

例句:Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished.

违反交通规定的人应该受处罚。

 

十七、There is no one but ~~~ (没有人不...)

例句:There is no one but longs to go to college.

没有人不渴望上大学。

 

十八、be + forced/compelled/obliged + to + V (不得不...)

例句:Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to

give up doing sports.  

既然考试迫在眉睫,我不得不放弃做运动。

 

十九、It is conceivable that + 句子 (可想而知的)

It is obvious that + 句子 (明显的)

It is apparent that + 句子 (显然的)

例句:It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life.

可想而知,知识在我们的一生中扮演一个重要的角色。

 

二十、That is the reason why ~~~ (那就是...的原因)

例句:Summer is sultry. That is the reason why I don‘t like it.

夏天很燠热。那就是我不喜欢它的原因。

 

二十一、For the past + 时间,S + 现在完成式...(过去...年来,...一直...)

例句:For the past two years, I have been busy preparing for the examination.

过去两年来,我一直忙着准备考试。

 

二十二、Since + S + 过去式,S + 现在完成式。

例句:Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard.

自从他上高中,他一直很用功。

 

二十三、It pays to + V ~~~ (...是值得的。)

例句:It pays to help others.

帮助别人是值得的。

 

二十四、be based on (以...为基础)

例句:The progress of thee society is based on harmony.

社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。

 

二十五、Spare no effort to + V (不遗余力的)

We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.

我们应该不遗余力的美化我们的环境。

 

二十六、bring home to + 人 + 事 (让...明白...事)

例句:We should bring home to people the value of working hard.

我们应该让人们明白努力的价值。

 

二十七、be closely related to ~~ (与...息息相关)

例句:Taking exercise is closely related to health.

做运动与健康息息相关。

 

二十八、Get into the habit of + Ving = make it a rule to + V (养成...的习惯)

We should get into the habit of keeping good hours.

我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。

 

二十九、Due to/Owing to/Thanks to + N/Ving, ~~~ (因为...)

例句:Thanks to his encouragement, I finally realized my dream.

因为他的鼓励,我终于实现我的梦想。

 

三十、What a + Adj + N + S + V!= How + Adj + a + N + V!(多么...!)

例句:What an important thing it is to keep our promise!

How important a thing it is to keep our promise!

遵守诺言是多么重要的事!

 

三十一、Leave much to be desired (令人不满意)

例句:The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired.

我们的交通状况令人不满意。

 

三十二、Have a great influence on ~~~ (对...有很大的影响)

例句:Smoking has a great influence on our health.

抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。

 

三十三、do good to (对...有益),do harm to (对...有害)

例句:Reading does good to our mind.读书对心灵有益。

Overwork does harm to health.工作过度对健康有害。

 

三十四、Pose a great threat to ~~ (对...造成一大威胁)

例句:Pollution poses a great threat to our existence.

污染对我们的生存造成一大威胁。

 

三十五、do one‘s utmost to + V = do one‘s best (尽全力去...)

例句:We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life.

我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标。

二。写好英语段落的三个标准

首先,一个段落必须有一个中心即主题思想,该中心由主题句特别是其中的题旨来表达。整个段落必须紧扣这个主题(stick or hold to the topic),这就是段落的统一性(unity)。其次,一个段落必须有若干推展句,使主题思想得到充分展开,从而给读者一个完整的感觉,这就是完整性(completeness or adequateness)。再者,一个段落不是杂乱无章的,而是有机的组合,句子的排列顺序必须合乎逻辑,从一个句子到另一个句子的过渡必须流畅(smooth),这就是连贯性(coherence)。下面我们就对这三个标准分别加以说明。

 

1、统一性

 

一个段落内的各个句子必须从属于一个中心,任何游离于中心思想之外的句子都是不可取的。请看下例:

 

Joe and I decided to take the long trip we’d always wanted across the country. We were like young kids buying our camper and stocking it with all the necessities of life. Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie. We started out in early spring from Minneapolis and headed west across the northern part of the country. We both enjoyed those people we met at the trailer park. Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner. To our surprise, we found that we liked the warm southern regions very much, and so we decided to stay here in New Mexico.

 

本段的主题句是段首句,controlling idea(中心思想)是take the long trip across the country。文中出现两个irrelevant sentences,一个是Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie,这一段是讲的是Joe and I ,中间出现一个Bella是不合适的。还有,Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner这一句更是与主题句不相关。考生在四级统考的作文卷上常常因为造出irrelevant sentences(不相关语句)而丢分,值得引起注意。再看一个例子:

 

My name is Roseanna, and I like to keep physically fit. I used to weigh two hundred pounds, but I joined the YMCA for an exercise class and diet program. In one year I lost eighty pounds. I feel much better and never want to have that much weight on my five-feet frame again. I bought two new suitcases last week. Everyday I practice jogging three miles, swimming fifteen laps, lifting twenty-pound weights and playing tennis for one hour. My mother was a premature baby.

 

本段的controlling idea 是like to deep physically fit,但段中有两个irrelevant sentences,一个是I bought two new suitcases last week,另一个是My mother was a premature baby。

 

从上面两个例子可以看出,native speakers同样会造出来irrelevant sentences。卷面上如果这种句子多了,造成偏题或离题,那问题就更严重了。

 

2、完整性

 

正象我们前面说得那样,一个段落的主题思想靠推展句来实现,如果只有主题句而没有推展句来进一步交待和充实,就不能构成一个完整的段落。同样,虽然有推展句,但主题思想没有得到相对圆满的交待,给读者一种意犹未尽的感觉。这样的段落也不能完成其交际功能。例如:

 

Physical work can be a useful form of therapy for a mind in turmoil. Work concentrates your thoughts on a concrete task. Besides, it is more useful to work ---- you produce something rather than more anxiety or depression.

 

本段的主题句是段首句。本段的两个推展句均不能回答主题句中提出的问题。什么是“a mind in turmoil”(心境不平静)Physical work又如何能改变这种情况?为什么它能起therapy的作用?读者得不到明确的答案。由于四级统考的作文部分只要求写一篇100~120个词的三段式短文,每一段只有大约40个词左右,因此,要达到完整就必须尽可能地简明。例如:

 

It is not always true that a good picture is worth a thousand words. Often writing is much clearer than a picture. It is sometimes difficult to figure out what a picture means, but a careful writer can almost always explain it.

 

段首句所表达的主题思想是一种看法,必须有具体事例加以验证。上述两个推展句只是在文字上对主题作些解释,整个段落内容空洞,简而不明。如果用一两个具体的例子的话,就可以把主题解释清楚了。比如下段:

 

It is not always true that a picture is worth a thousand words. Sometimes, pictures are pretty useless things. If you can’t swim and fall in the river and start gulping water, will you be better off to hold up a picture of yourself drowning, or start screaming "Help"?

 

三。英语写作复杂思维表达三段论

中文书面表达方式和英文书面表达方式存在很大的差异。英文写作能力提高的捷径就是首先对比中英文表达方式的差异,然后学会把中文表达方式转换为英文表达方式。譬如

一、主语的几种表达格式。

1.他们能够保存自己历史的唯一途径就是,由讲述人一代接一代地将史实描述为传奇故事口传下来。

The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas--legends handed down from one generation of story-tellers to another.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“他们能够保存自己历史的唯一途径”;英文表达“唯一途径that他们能够保存自己的历史”,完全转换“The only way that they can preserve their history”。

2.弗吉尼亚.伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)关于她写作《黛洛维夫人》(Mrs. Dalloway)意图的具有争议性的陈述通常被评论家们所忽略了,因为它突出反映了她诸多文学兴趣中某一方面,而这一方面则与人们对“诗性”小说家(poetic novelist)所形成的传统见解大相径庭。所谓的“诗性”小说家,所关注的是审视想入非非和白日梦幻的诸般状态,并致力于追寻个体意识的通幽曲径。

Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics,since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“弗吉尼亚.伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)关于她写作《黛洛维夫人》(Mrs. Dalloway)意图的具有争议性的陈述”;英文表达“弗吉尼亚.伍尔夫的具有争议性的陈述关于她的目的在写作《黛洛维夫人》”,完全转换 “Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway”。

3.据估计,在英国蜘蛛一年里所消灭昆虫的重量将会超过这个国家人口的总重量。

It has been estimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of all the human beings in the country.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“据估计,在英国蜘蛛一年里所消灭昆虫的重量将会超过这个国家人口的总重量。”;英文表达“它已经被估计that the重量of所有昆虫毁灭的被蜘蛛在英国在一年里将是更大比the总重量of所有人类在这个国家”,完全转换“It has been estimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of all the human beings in the country.”。

4.企图消除自己和读者之间距离或企图用不了解自己的人的角度来研究自己塑造的形象,很可能会是作家自己毁灭,因为他已经开始为取悦他人而写作了。

This temptation to cover the distance between himself and the reader, to study his image in the sight of those who do not know him, can be his undoing: he has begun to write to please.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“企图消除自己和读者之间距离或企图用不了解自己的人的角度来研究自己塑造的形象”;英文表达“这种企图去消失距离之间自己和读者,去研究他自己塑造的形象以这种角度of those who不了解他自己”,完全转换“This temptation to cover the distance between himself and the reader, to study his image in the sight of those who do not know him,”。

二、谓语的几种表达方式。

1.此外,蜘蛛不象一些其他食虫动物,它们绝不会对我们或我们的财物造成丝毫的危害。

Moreover, unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“蜘蛛不象一些其他食虫动物,它们绝不会对我们或我们的财物造成丝毫的危害。”;英文表达“不象一些of the其他食虫动物,蜘蛛绝对不做最小的伤害对我们或我们的财物”,完全转换“unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings.”。

2.美国的经济体制是围绕着一个以私有企业为主和以市场为导向的经济进行组织的,在这种经济中,消费者很大程度上通过在市场上花钱购买那些他们最想要的商品和服务来决定什么应该被制造。

The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“美国的经济体制是围绕着一个以私有企业为主和以市场为导向的经济进行组织的,”;英文表达“美国的经济体制被组织围绕一个主要地私营的企业,市场为导向的经济”,完全转换“The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy”。

3.然而,在起初完全不是这么一会事。

In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“然而,在起初完全不是这么一会事。”;英文表达“在起初,然而,this was不是这事完全”,完全转换“In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all.”。

4.他宣称他反对把这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术用于克隆人类,并下令联邦政府基金不准被用于做此类试验--尽管还没有人建议这么做--,而且他还邀请了一个由普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得.夏皮罗所主持的独立专家小组在90天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。

Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment-although no one had proposed to do so--and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on

human cloning.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“他宣称……,并下令……,而且他还邀请……”;英文表达“宣称that……,他下令that……and邀请……”,完全转换“Declaring that …… , he ordered that …… and asked ……”。

三、宾语的几种表达方式。

1.我们从书籍中可读到,5000年前的近东地区的人们最早学会了写字。

We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“我们从书籍中可读到,5000年前的近东地区的人们最早学会了写字。”;英文表达“我们能够读到things that happened5000年前在近东,where人们最早”,完全转换“We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.”。

2.现在每个人都拥有比任何时代人都要多的可利用信息,而找到与他/她的特定问题相关的那一点信息的工作不仅复杂、耗时,有时甚至比登山还难。

The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time--consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“现在每个人都拥有比任何时代人都要多的可利用信息”;英文表达“个体现在有更多信息可利用的比任何一代人”,完全转换“The individual now has more information available than any generation”。

3.现代的登山运动员们试图通过一条会给他们带来运动乐趣的路线去攀登山峰,并且这条路线愈艰险愈带劲儿。

Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“现代的登山运动员们试图通过一条会给他们带来运动乐趣的路线去攀登山峰,并且这条路线愈艰险愈带劲儿。”;英文表达“现代的登山运动员试图去登山通过一条路线which将给他们好的运动,并且the更多的困难的it是,the更多的兴奋地it被认为”,完全转换“Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded.”。

4.酸是一种化合物,它在溶于水时具有强烈的气味,它对金属具有腐蚀的作用,并且它具有把某些蓝色植物染料变红的能力。

Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have a sharp taste, a corrosive action on metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red.

写作法则提炼:中文表达“酸是一种化合物,它在溶于水时具有一种强烈的气味,它对金属具有一种腐蚀的作用,并且它具有把某些蓝色植物染料变红的能力。”;英文表达“酸是化合物that,进入水溶解作用,具有一种强烈的味道,一种腐蚀的作用对于金属,并且这种能力去转变某些蓝色植物染料红色的”,完全转换 “cids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have a sharp taste, a corrosive action on metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red.”。

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